Category Archives: Finance

My unfounded theory on Martin Shkreli

Everyone’s favourite price-gouging, Wu Tang-baiting pharma bro is back in the news. Martin Shkreli is an odd figure. Brazen, but with a hint of desperation that suggests that his characteristic self-confidence might not be all there is to him. This week, he was called to testify before Congress, and remained uncharacteristically silent.

Why, though, was he called to testify before Congress? Hasn’t he just been plying the game, like all the rest of Wall Street? Well no, not really, he’s only been playing half the game. Shkreli is undoubtedly new money – the child of immigrants who worked as janitors. He is brazen, and doesn’t try to hide what he’s doing. That, really, is what he’s been called to testify for (he’s also under investigation for securities fraud, but that is a separate matter).

He’s been called to testify because if all of the wealthy were as brutally, publicly honest and unapologetic as him, people would fairly soon get pretty angry. He’s simply not doing it right. People as rich as Shkreli are supposed to gush about how much they contribute to society, to wear nice clothes and patronisingly explain that it simply has to be this way. They aren’t meant to openly admit that they are getting filthy rich off the backs of others.

What Shkreli did – buy up a life-saving drug and raise its price – is not exactly uncommon. He works in a multi-billion pound pharmaceutical industry devoted to doing pretty much exactly the same thing as he’s done – acquire some monopoly power and sell it for as much as you can. In reality, this quest for monopoly power underpins much of capitalism.

The intersection of the pharmaceutical and finance industries just happens to be about as blatant, direct and transparent as this process gets. Patents – the granting of a temporary legal monopoly – can be resold and then exploited as by Shkreli. This is pretty offensive, yes, but functionally very similar to practices in many, many industries, from fashion, to food, to carmaking. Every company wants monopoly power, and many spend a great deal trying to get it.

What are the chances that the most motor-mouthed of hedge fund CEOs happened to also be the worst, and most deserving of a congressional investigation? Fairly low, especially when you consider that basically nothing happened over the financial crisis. His brashness threatens to undermine the legitimacy of the system. Shkreli isn’t being investigated for his crimes against the American people, he’s being investigated for crimes against his fellow financiers – many of whom will have donated generously to those investigating him.



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Filed under Economics, Finance, US Politics

Are we headed for another subprime crisis?

Before we started pretending that government deficit caused the global financial crisis, it was widely recognised that it was caused by irresponsible bank lending. Rocketing house prices fuelled a lending bubble that was, in effect, little more than a legitimised Ponzi scheme. Banks could afford to lend to people who couldn’t really afford mortgages, because the rapidly increasing price of the house was enough to cover their losses in the event that the borrower couldn’t repay. Everyone needs shelter, and so for as long as prices went up, and banks could attract new customers, the gravy train could go on.

Like any Ponzi scheme, however, it all came down eventually. While economists and traders had been egging each other on, convincing themselves that sub-prime mortgages were safe as (excuse the pun) houses, the system quietly mounted in size. Banks plunged themselves further into debt to be able to lend even more money for buying houses, blind to the possibility of failure. A little wobble in the US housing market suddenly turned everything sour, as the entire financial sector suddenly remembered that prices could go down as well as up.

The rest is history, though that history has since been revised. As house prices plunged, and the government felt compelled to rescue the financial sector, economic uncertainty (as well as a healthy dose of reality) depressed demand, shrinking the economy. Since then, we’ve gone through some largely unnecessary cuts to a depressingly partisan range of government services. The economy has “rebounded” largely on the back of free-flowing credit from the once-again-booming London housing market.

There have been several recent changes to housing in the UK. Two in particular almost seem designed to repeat the mistakes of 2007-08. The first is the extension of right-to-buy, the second is the ending of secure tenancies. Together, these funnel people into home ownership, whether they can afford it or not. As secure tenancies end and the private housing market continues to hurtle away from reality at startling pace, council tenants are confronted with a choice: scrape together the cash to buy the place, or submit to the insecure, overpriced world of private renting.

This is incredibly expensive, given that public money is subsidising each purchase, and doesn’t benefit those most in need of support with housing. Tellingly, however, it does benefit mortgage lenders. Lots of nice, insecure borrowers who can be charged high rates of interest and then have their more-valuable home sold on in the case that they do default. Lots of low-income borrowers funnelled towards home ownership during a period of booming house prices; something sounds familiar.

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Filed under Economics, Finance